The goal of the research presented here was to estimate and visualize the cumulative human impact on the ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. This interactive website allows for visualization of the distribution and relative magnitude of individual human activities and associated stressors to marine ecosystems, and for an examination of human pressures to focal regions and locations.
This analysis builds on a previous global analysis of cumulative human impacts to marine ecosystems (Halpern et al. 2008. Science 319: 948-952; see also http://globalmarine.nceas.ucsb.edu and http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/globalmarine). In the present Mediterranean analysis we used the same approach developed for the global analysis, but replaced some of the datalayers and included additional data to better reflect the specific pressures to the Mediterranean basin. A total of 18 spatial datasets of human activities and stressors and 17 ecosystem types were assembled and used in the analyses and maps.
Legend / Data Layers
Deep Hard Benthic
Deep Soft Benthic
Note: You must turn off all ecosystem layers in order to view the activity base maps.
* Ecosystems may not be visible on the full scale map.
Modeled Cumulative Impact
Activities or Stressors
Nutrient Input (Fertilizers)
Fishing(demersal non-destructive high-bycatch)
Fishing(demersal non-destructive low-bycatch)
Benthic Structures (Oil Rigs)
Risk of Hypoxia
Organic Pollution (Pesticides)
Coastal Population Density
Sea Surface Temperature Increase